Anaplasma phagocytophilum

Paul G. Auwaerter, M.D.


  • Cause of tick-borne infection in humans.
  • Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), formerly known as human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE).
    • The organism is currently known as Anaplasma phagocytophilum, transmitted by Ixodes scapularis (black-legged deer tick) on the Eastern Seaboard and in New England, the Mid-Atlantic, and the Upper Midwest, and on the West Coast by the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus)—the same vectors as for Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi).
      • Anaplasma marginale infects cattle.
      • Anaplasma bovis, a cattle pathogen, has caused human disease, first reported in Algeria (1936).
      • Anaplasma capra is provisionally associated with causing moderate to severe disease in humans.
      • Anaplasma bovis-like organism has been described in four patients in the U.S.[3]
        • The four patients hailed from Central and Upper Midwest U.S.
        • Has been identified in Dermacentor variabliis ticks, so it is a possible vector.
    • An obligate, intracellular pathogen that tends to multiply in granulocytes within vacuoles that may form morulae.
      • See Ehrlichia spp. module for disease (human monocytic ehrlichiosis [HME] and others) caused by similar tick-borne pathogens.
      • Occasionally seen as a Gram-negative organism upon staining.

There's more to see -- the rest of this topic is available only to subscribers.

Last updated: June 12, 2024