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- The most common causes of pancreatitis are noninfectious (see below). Infectious causes include the following pathogens:
- Viruses: mumps, Coxsackie virus (and other enteroviruses), CMV, varicella zoster virus (VZV), HSV, acute HIV, hepatitis B
- Bacteria: Mycoplasma spp., Legionella, Leptospira, Salmonella spp.
- Fungi: cryptococcus (HIV), PCP, aspergillus
- Parasites: Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidia, Ascaris, Strongyloides
- Infected pancreatic necrosis: usually caused by bowel flora (gram negative, gram positive and anaerobic organisms). Resistant bacterial and fungal infection may occur, especially if patients have received prior antibiotics.