- Aerobic, gram-negative, lactose fermenter [Fig] and oxidase positive.
- Part of the family Alcaligenaceae in the Burkholderiales order.
- May grow anaerobically.
- Motile, has peritrichous (meaning evenly distributed) flagella.
- Has been cultured using MacConkey, Mueller-Hinton, NAC and Salmonella-Shigella agars.
- Found widely in the environment, including soil and waters fresh and brackish.
- It may be a component of normal GI flora.
- Known to be associated with biofilm formation and is found in humidifiers and well water.
- Intrinsic and acquired multi-drug resistance are common. Two main mechanisms:
- Multidrug efflux pumps
- Metallo-β-lactamases, most commonly OXA-114-like (chromosomal)
- A. xylosoxidans: most commonly implicated in active infections.
- Intrinsically resistant to aminoglycosides, aztreonam, tetracyclines, and many penicillins/cephalosporins.
- Formerly called Alcaligenes xylosoxidans.
- Many other species that MALDI-TOF MS may be most helpful to identify. Some of the most common isolates seen in human infection are:
- A. denitrificans
- A. dolens
- A. insuavis
- A. piechaudii
- A. ruhlandii
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