Achromobacter species


  • Aerobic, gram-negative, lactose fermenter [Fig] and oxidase positive.
    • Part of the family Alcaligenaceae in the Burkholderiales order.
    • May grow anaerobically.
    • Motile, has peritrichous (meaning evenly distributed) flagella.
    • Has been cultured using MacConkey, Mueller-Hinton, NAC and Salmonella-Shigella agars.
  • Found widely in the environment, including soil and waters fresh and brackish.
    • It may be a component of normal GI flora.
    • Known to be associated with biofilm formation and is found in humidifiers and well water.
  • Intrinsic and acquired multi-drug resistance are common. Two main mechanisms:
    • Multidrug efflux pumps
    • Metallo-β-lactamases, most commonly OXA-114-like (chromosomal)
  • A. xylosoxidans: most commonly implicated in active infections.
    • Intrinsically resistant to aminoglycosides, aztreonam, tetracyclines, and many penicillins/cephalosporins.
    • Formerly called Alcaligenes xylosoxidans.
    • Many other species that MALDI-TOF MS may be most helpful to identify. Some of the most common isolates seen in human infection are:
      • A. denitrificans
      • A. dolens
      • A. insuavis
      • A. piechaudii
      • A. ruhlandii

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Last updated: August 8, 2022