Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

Valeria Fabre, M.D.


  • Dimorphic fungus.
    • At 37°C appears as an oval to round yeast cell variable in size, 4-40 μm.
    • The classic "ship’s wheel" structure [Fig 1] represents a mother cell surrounded by narrow-based budding daughter cells.
  • Four phylogenetic species (S1, PS2, PS3, PS4) are confined to particular endemic regions.
  • Autochthonous disease from southern Mexico to northern Argentina.
    • Countries where there have been no reports of paracoccidioidomycosis (PM), include:
      • Central America: Belize and Nicaragua
      • South America: Chile, French Guiana, Guiana, and Suriname
  • Paracoccidioides lutzzi causes a similar disease in humans; cases due to P. lutzzi have only been reported in Brazil and Ecuador.
    • Other species described now with molecular taxonomy infecting humans:
      • Several cryptic species, including Paracoccidioides americana, P. restrepiensis, and P. venezuelensis.
    • Preference for cutaneous and mucous membranes.

There's more to see -- the rest of this topic is available only to subscribers.

Last updated: February 4, 2023