- As a term, "coryneform ("club-shaped") bacteria" is sometimes used to denote a wide range of Gram-positive rods based on staining characteristics and DNA content (specific G/C ratios).
- Corynebacterium spp. included, but also others (Arcanobacterium, Rothia mucilaginosa).
- Genus with two major human species:
- Corynebacterium diphtheriae (see separate module)
- Non-diphtherial species also referred to as "diphtheroids." Classification of this group now based on RNA homology rather than within the previous coryneform group.
- Many are part of normal human skin flora.
- A partial listing of most commonly encountered pathogens below, more complete listing (53 pathogens) in Bernard. Organisms remain rare causes of human infection.
- Zoonoses (usually), rare human pathogen:
- C. pseudotuberculosis: cause of caseous lymphadenitis in goats and sheep; human infection typically derived from contact with infected animals. Occasional agent of human lymphadenitis or respiratory diphtheria.
- C. ulcerans: infection from handling infected animals or contact with contaminated milk.
- An occasional cause of human respiratory diphtherial infection.
- See the diphtheria module for public health and treatment recommendations.
- Other occasional human pathogens: often afflicting hospitalized/immunocompromised patients; organisms typically with significant antibiotic-resistance profiles.
- C. amycolatum: may be under-recognized as frequently misidentified as C. jeikeium or C. urealyticum.
- C. bovis: bacteremia (rare)
- C. hemolyticum: now Arcanobacterium hemolyticum.
- C. jeikeium: originally termed group JK. May cause bacteremia, endocarditis, device/prosthesis infections, wound infections--especially in immunocompromised patients with hematological disorders or vascular catheters.
- C. kroppenstedtii: implicated as a cause of granulomatous mastitis. See the mastitis module for details.
- C. striatum: described as an emerging nosocomial pathogen; endocarditis, lung or bone infections, device infections, septic arthritis
- C.tuberculostearicum:may be misidentified by lab, often multidrug-resistant.
- C. urealyticum: capable of hydrolyzing urea. Genitourinary infections (encrusted cystitis) >> bacteremia, endocarditis, wound infections.
- C. xerosis: rare and usually afflicting immunocompromised or cardiac valve patients.
- Species identification recommended for any isolate thought to be causing human infection.
- Gram-positive rods [Fig 1], catalase-positive and non-motile.
- May be aerobic or facultatively anaerobic.
- Not acid-fast.
- Most grow on conventional media, though some require the addition of lipids for growth.
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