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- Helminthic parasite, common worldwide but especially in warmer climes.
- S. stercoralis is the major pathogen.
- S. fuelleborni occasional human pathogen, described in Papua New Guinea and Africa.
- Larvae live in soil. Human infection by contact with contaminated soil.
- Filariform larvae penetrate skin and enter lymphatics → lung alveoli.
- Migration from lung to trachea to GI tract/small intestine.
- Females yield to parthenogenic reproduction with eggs that turn to rhabditiform larvae within the intestine.
- Cycle yields long-term infection in humans (years-decades, may be considered lifelong).
- Immunosuppression can yield increased organisms by result of auto-infection → hyperinfection [see life cycle Fig. 1], a potentially fatal condition.
- Larvae are typically seen ~1 month after exposure.