Lymphadenopathy and Lymphadenitis
- Lists below are by no means comprehensive but list commonly considered pathogens causing lymphadenopathy, as well as some non-infectious considerations.
- Acute generalized LN (presenting in two or more regional groups): HIV, syphilis, EBV, CMV, Toxoplasma, Brucella, cat scratch disease (Bartonella), sarcoid, lymphoma, Stills disease, inflammatory bowel disease, Whipple’s disease, hypersensitivity reaction.
- HAART-associated immune reconstitution syndrome in HIV+ pts (IRIS).
- Acute localized:
- Cervical: group A streptococci, EBV, TB, cat scratch disease (Bartonella), lymphoma, temporal arteritis, chronic fatigue syndrome.
- Pre-auricular: adenovirus, conjunctivitis, tularemia, Bartonella (Parinauds syndrome).
- Epitrochlear: hand infection (medial 3 fingers), syphilis.
- Inguinal: syphilis, herpes, chancroid, LGV, chancroid, HIV, tularemia, plague.
- Chronic generalized: syphilis, TB, histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), lymphoma, HIV, sarcoid, hyperthyroidism, posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder.
- Chronic localized: TB, cryptococcus, histoplasmosis, cat scratch disease (Bartonella), lymphoma, metastatic cancer, Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease, Rosai-Dorman disease, Castleman’s disease (some HHV-8).
- Non-infectious: many conditions, but consider sarcoidosis, Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (usually cervical LN), lymphoma, SLE, metastatic malignancy, Rosai-Dorman disease, Castleman’s disease (some HHV-8), reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH), dermatopathic lymphadenitis (DLN), Kimura disease, and lymphadenopathy-associated with autoimmune and metabolic/storage disease.
- Other nodal entities could include lymph node infarction, foreign body reactions, drug reactions, extramedullary hematopoiesis.
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