• Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic (or microaerophilic) rod [Fig].
    • > 170 species are known.
  • Normal flora of the GI/GU tract.
  • Produces lactic acid from glycogen, providing for a low vaginal pH.
  • Species are often used to produce yogurt, cheese, wine and other fermented products.
  • Most are inherently resistant to vancomycin.
    • Lactobacilli are typically resistant to aminoglycosides, ciprofloxacin and metronidazole.
      • L. acidophilus are susceptible to both penicillin and vancomycin
      • L. rhamnosus and L. casei are resistant to metronidazole and vancomycin.

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Last updated: April 8, 2023