Japanese Encephalitis Virus

Japanese Encephalitis Virus is a topic covered in the Johns Hopkins ABX Guide.

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MICROBIOLOGY

  • Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV): mosquito-borne flavivirus, similar to St. Louis encephalitis virus, Murray Valley encephalitis, yellow fever, dengue, and West Nile virus.
  • Single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus.
  • JEV is transmitted by Culex mosquitoes or species that lay eggs in flooded rice fields.
    • Wild birds are natural hosts, and domestic pigs and birds are amplifying hosts. Bats transmit disease in China.
    • Blood transfusion and organ transplantation are potential modes of transmission.
  • JEV is endemic in Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific islands causing about 70,000 cases of infection and 14,000-20,000 deaths per year worldwide.[11]
    • Map of JE transmission
    • Risk of infection estimated at 1/5000 per month of travel to rural areas of Asia where transmission occurs.
    • In temperate Asia, the incidence of cases peaks in summer and fall.
    • In tropics or subtropics, transmission occurs in wet seasons but may occur year-round.
    • Emerging risk in southern Europe via C. pipiens with JEV sequences found in mosquitoes and birds in Italy.[5]

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MICROBIOLOGY

  • Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV): mosquito-borne flavivirus, similar to St. Louis encephalitis virus, Murray Valley encephalitis, yellow fever, dengue, and West Nile virus.
  • Single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus.
  • JEV is transmitted by Culex mosquitoes or species that lay eggs in flooded rice fields.
    • Wild birds are natural hosts, and domestic pigs and birds are amplifying hosts. Bats transmit disease in China.
    • Blood transfusion and organ transplantation are potential modes of transmission.
  • JEV is endemic in Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific islands causing about 70,000 cases of infection and 14,000-20,000 deaths per year worldwide.[11]
    • Map of JE transmission
    • Risk of infection estimated at 1/5000 per month of travel to rural areas of Asia where transmission occurs.
    • In temperate Asia, the incidence of cases peaks in summer and fall.
    • In tropics or subtropics, transmission occurs in wet seasons but may occur year-round.
    • Emerging risk in southern Europe via C. pipiens with JEV sequences found in mosquitoes and birds in Italy.[5]

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Last updated: June 2, 2020