Influenza is a topic covered in the Johns Hopkins ABX Guide.

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PATHOGENS

  • Influenza A (seasonal):
    • 2018-2019, season longest in a decade > 20 weeks with two waves of influenza A (H1N1 pdm09 predominated early with H3N2 seen more in Feb-May).
    • 2019-2020, preliminary CDC estimates in the U.S. included 29-56 million infections, 410,00-740,000 hospitalizations and 24,000-62,000 deaths.
      • The season may have been worse than 2018-2019, with more pediatric deaths (at least 144). Both influenza A and B strains were dominant, with influenza B striking typically children and younger adults more than the elderly.
  • Influenza A: recently active strains
    • H1n1 pdm09 active annually since 2009; in 2018-2019 accounted for most of the early season.
    • H3N2: seasonal influenza, predominant influenza A strain in 2017-2020 in U.S.
    • H1N1v: detected Jan 2015 with a handful of reported infections in the U.S.
    • Other novel strains (usually limited): A(H1N2) variant (H1N2v) virus (2016), A(H7N2) (2016)
    • H3N2v: Swine influenza strain with triple re-assortment, emerging 2011-2013 in multiple states in the U.S., continues to circulate occasionally.
      • Most human cases have had pig contact.
      • The strain has been susceptible to neuraminidases.
      • People at high risk for severe consequences with influenza should avoid pig contact.
      • Children < 10 yrs most prone as older children and adults may have some immunity by exposure to earlier influenza strains.
      • No clear indication of increased severity of the disease.
    • Pandemic H1N1 remains active since pandemic 2009, continues to be identified in seasonal influenza.
    • Other: multiple avian influenza or other strains
  • Influenza B (seasonal): typically becomes more common later in a seasonal influenza season.

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PATHOGENS

  • Influenza A (seasonal):
    • 2018-2019, season longest in a decade > 20 weeks with two waves of influenza A (H1N1 pdm09 predominated early with H3N2 seen more in Feb-May).
    • 2019-2020, preliminary CDC estimates in the U.S. included 29-56 million infections, 410,00-740,000 hospitalizations and 24,000-62,000 deaths.
      • The season may have been worse than 2018-2019, with more pediatric deaths (at least 144). Both influenza A and B strains were dominant, with influenza B striking typically children and younger adults more than the elderly.
  • Influenza A: recently active strains
    • H1n1 pdm09 active annually since 2009; in 2018-2019 accounted for most of the early season.
    • H3N2: seasonal influenza, predominant influenza A strain in 2017-2020 in U.S.
    • H1N1v: detected Jan 2015 with a handful of reported infections in the U.S.
    • Other novel strains (usually limited): A(H1N2) variant (H1N2v) virus (2016), A(H7N2) (2016)
    • H3N2v: Swine influenza strain with triple re-assortment, emerging 2011-2013 in multiple states in the U.S., continues to circulate occasionally.
      • Most human cases have had pig contact.
      • The strain has been susceptible to neuraminidases.
      • People at high risk for severe consequences with influenza should avoid pig contact.
      • Children < 10 yrs most prone as older children and adults may have some immunity by exposure to earlier influenza strains.
      • No clear indication of increased severity of the disease.
    • Pandemic H1N1 remains active since pandemic 2009, continues to be identified in seasonal influenza.
    • Other: multiple avian influenza or other strains
  • Influenza B (seasonal): typically becomes more common later in a seasonal influenza season.

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Last updated: September 10, 2020