Hepatitis, Non-A, B, C, D, or E
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- Viral pathogens that may induce hepatitis (other than traditional hepatitis virus HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV and HEV) as part of their disease spectra and are encountered in the U.S. include:
- Herpes viruses (herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2)
- Varicella-zoster virus
- Epstein-Barr virus (LFT abnormalities or elevated bilirubin part of infectious mononucleosis, especially in middle-aged adults with acquiring primary infection)
- Cytomegalovirus (often milder mononucleosis-like presentations than primary EBV)
- Human herpes virus 6)
- Enteroviruses (coxsackieviruses and echoviruses)
- Parvovirus B19
- Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): during acute infection
- Other less common pathogens that induce hepatitis include:
- Not substantial human pathogens:
- GB viruses (some classify as GBV-A, GBV-C and GBV-D): transmitted via transfusion, intravenous drug use, hemodialysis, sexual contact, and from mother to fetus. Not believed to be a clinically significant pathogen as it does not replicate in the liver.
- Hepatitis F virus: was the designation for a purported enterically transmitted agent during 1994 but subsequent studies did not confirm its existence.
- TT virus (Torque teno virus, TTV, member of family Circoviridae, genus Anellovirus): some limited evidence points to oncological potential.