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- RNA virus transmitted via enteric routes in epidemics and sporadic cases, similar to HAV.
- Modes of transmission include waterborne, zoonotic and less commonly through blood transfusion and perinatally.
- Four genotypes (all belong to one serotype) detected in humans, distinct means of transmission suspected.
- Genotypes 1, 2: predominantly fecal-contaminated water in developing countries worldwide.
- Genotypes 3, 4: worldwide zoonotic transmission from unclear sources but some significant association with insufficiently cooked game meat or pork products along with shellfish in North America, Western Europe, and Japan.