• Enveloped, segmented, negative-sense RNA virus. A large number of species (23 to date) with more discovered regularly.
  • Member of Bunyaviridae. Unlike other arthropod-borne viruses in this family, hantaviruses are rodent-borne viruses associated with specific reservoirs.
  • In the U.S., geographic locales differ:
    • Southeast: deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), cotton (Sigmodon hispidus) and rice (Oryzomys palustris) rats
    • Northeast: the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) has been associated.
  • Transmission to humans through inhalation of aerosolized saliva, urine or feces of reservoir host.
  • Hantavirus New World: known to cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)
    • Examples: found in the Americas unless otherwise stated.
      • Andes virus (ANDV)
      • Sin Nombre virus (SNV)
      • Choclo virus (CHOV), Central America
    • Carried by the New World rats and mice, family Muridae, and subfamily Sigmodontinae, these rodents are not found in urban sites.
      • Deer mouse
      • Cotton rat
      • Rice rat
      • White-footed mouse
  • Hantaan virus, Old World: may cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), from an infected rodent or rodent excretions exposure.
    • Known rodent carriers:
      • Striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius, Saaremaa and Hantaan virus)
      • Brown or Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus, Seoul virus)
      • Bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus, Puumala virus)
      • Yellow-necked field mouse (Apodemus flavicollis, Dobrava virus)
    • Viruses:
      • Puumala virus, a hantavirus carried in bank voles, may cause Nephropathia epidemica in humans, primarily in Europe, and western Russia.
      • Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) causes a more severe HFRS, again in Europe.
      • Hantaan virus: prototype HFRS, predominantly eastern Asia
      • Saaremaa virus: Scandinavia, central Europe
      • Seoul virus: HFRS worldwide, most commonly in Asia, though worldwide with rare cases in North America.

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Last updated: December 11, 2022