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Haemophilus species

Haemophilus species is a topic covered in the Johns Hopkins ABX Guide.

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  • Small aerobic Gram-negative coccobacillus found mainly in the respiratory tract.
    • Fastidious organism, factors X (hemin, haemophilius from Latin "blood loving") and V (nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide) required for growth on chocolate agar, the preferred media
  • Haemophilus influenzae: two categories causing human colonization or infection
    • Typeable strains: six types generally recognized (Types a-f).
      • Encapsulated, type B strain (Hib, with capsular antiphagocytosis and anticomplement virulence factors) historically accounts for most invasive infections and bacteremic pneumonia. Now rarely encountered due to childhood Hib vaccine success.
      • H. influenzae serotype a (Hia) increasingly noted as cause of severe, invasive infection. Emergence due to intrinsic capsular virulence factors of Hia was well as pressure from success of Hib immunization[5].
        • Predominantly noted in U.S. and Canada. Incidence in Europe, low.
        • In one series, accounted for ~30% of invasive H. influenzae infection in Manitoba.
      • Type f strain also increasingly recognized as cause of severe infection, though less common than Hia.
    • Non-typeable strains: less invasive and cause more otitis media, epiglottitis, acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB), sinusitis and nonbacteremic pneumonia.
      • Increasingly recognized as cause of URTIs, pneumonia and occasional bacteremia in all age groups.
      • High colonization rates in children, up to 70%.
  • Other species: all are part of normal flora of human oral and pharyngeal cavities but may also be causes of bacterial respiratory tract infections and endocarditis, similar to H. influenzae.
    • H. parainfluenzae (most common)
    • H. aphrophilus
    • H. paraphrophilus
    • H. parahaemolyticus
    • H. segnis a
    • Note: H. aphrophilus and H. segnis are now classified to new genus: Aggregatibacter aphrophilus and Aggregatibacter segnis[18].
  • H. ducreyi, agent of Chancroid, see separate module.

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Last updated: July 6, 2016


Auwaerter, Paul. "Haemophilus Species." Johns Hopkins ABX Guide, The Johns Hopkins University, 2016. Pediatrics Central, peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540253/all/Haemophilus_species.
Auwaerter P. Haemophilus species. Johns Hopkins ABX Guide. The Johns Hopkins University; 2016. https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540253/all/Haemophilus_species. Accessed March 24, 2019.
Auwaerter, P. (2016). Haemophilus species. In Johns Hopkins ABX Guide. Available from https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540253/all/Haemophilus_species
Auwaerter P. Haemophilus Species [Internet]. In: Johns Hopkins ABX Guide. The Johns Hopkins University; 2016. [cited 2019 March 24]. Available from: https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540253/all/Haemophilus_species.
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TY - ELEC T1 - Haemophilus species ID - 540253 A1 - Auwaerter,Paul,M.D. Y1 - 2016/07/06/ BT - Johns Hopkins ABX Guide UR - https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540253/all/Haemophilus_species PB - The Johns Hopkins University DB - Pediatrics Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -