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Giardia lamblia is a topic covered in the Johns Hopkins ABX Guide.

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  • Giardia lamblia (syn. G. duodenalis or G. intestinalis)
    • Flagellated bi-nucleated protozoan (see figure)
    • Most common intestinal parasite in North America.
    • CDC image gallery at https://www.cdc.gov….
  • Life cycle forms are: 1) highly infectious cysts, and 2) disease-causing trophozoites.
    • Following excystation, trophozoites multiply and colonize the upper small intestine.
    • Trophozoites with flat ventral surface adhere to brush border of enterocytes and cause malabsorption.[7]
  • Transmitted by contaminated water, food, person-to-person, and fecal-oral contact.[6]
    • Surface water is easily contaminated by cysts shed from mammalian hosts such as beaver, sheep, cattle, dogs, or cats.
    • Highly contagious, low infective dose of 10 cysts.
  • Occurs worldwide, specifically in settings of daycare centers, over-crowded areas with poor sanitation, and outdoor recreation or swimming pools.[6]

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Last updated: September 10, 2018


Spacek, Lisa A. "Giardia Lamblia." Johns Hopkins ABX Guide, The Johns Hopkins University, 2018. Pediatrics Central, peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540246/all/Giardia_lamblia.
Spacek LA. Giardia lamblia. Johns Hopkins ABX Guide. The Johns Hopkins University; 2018. https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540246/all/Giardia_lamblia. Accessed April 22, 2019.
Spacek, L. A. (2018). Giardia lamblia. In Johns Hopkins ABX Guide. Available from https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540246/all/Giardia_lamblia
Spacek LA. Giardia Lamblia [Internet]. In: Johns Hopkins ABX Guide. The Johns Hopkins University; 2018. [cited 2019 April 22]. Available from: https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540246/all/Giardia_lamblia.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Giardia lamblia ID - 540246 A1 - Spacek,Lisa,M.D., Ph.D. Y1 - 2018/09/10/ BT - Johns Hopkins ABX Guide UR - https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540246/all/Giardia_lamblia PB - The Johns Hopkins University DB - Pediatrics Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -