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Enterobacter species

Enterobacter species is a topic covered in the Johns Hopkins ABX Guide.

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  • Gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacilli of the Enterobacteriaceae family.
  • Opportunistic human pathogen includes: E. cloacae (most common), E. aerogenes, E. gergoviae[8] and Pantoea agglomerans.
    • E. sakazakii now classified as Cronobacter.
  • High levels of drug resistance often seen and due to:
    • (1) Chromosomal AmpC beta-lactamases that are constitutive and inducible[12]
      • β-lactams must be present for activation of inducible beta-lactamases, so initial susceptibility reports may not detect resistance that can arise during therapy.
    • (2) Plasmid-encoded extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs)
    • (3) Carbapenemases[7]
  • Other resistance mechanisms
    • Alterations in active site of penicillin-binding protein
    • Defects in outer membrane permeability that reduce diffusion of beta-lactams into cell
    • Presence of efflux pumps that move beta-lactams out of cell

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Last updated: March 1, 2017


Spacek, Lisa A. "Enterobacter Species." Johns Hopkins ABX Guide, The Johns Hopkins University, 2017. Pediatrics Central, peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540201/all/Enterobacter_species.
Spacek LA. Enterobacter species. Johns Hopkins ABX Guide. The Johns Hopkins University; 2017. https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540201/all/Enterobacter_species. Accessed April 23, 2019.
Spacek, L. A. (2017). Enterobacter species. In Johns Hopkins ABX Guide. Available from https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540201/all/Enterobacter_species
Spacek LA. Enterobacter Species [Internet]. In: Johns Hopkins ABX Guide. The Johns Hopkins University; 2017. [cited 2019 April 23]. Available from: https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540201/all/Enterobacter_species.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Enterobacter species ID - 540201 A1 - Spacek,Lisa,M.D., Ph.D. Y1 - 2017/03/01/ BT - Johns Hopkins ABX Guide UR - https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540201/all/Enterobacter_species PB - The Johns Hopkins University DB - Pediatrics Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -