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- Caused by dematiaceous (pigmented, melanin-producing: phaeohyphomycoses) fungi.
- Most common Fonsecaea pedrosoi then F. compacta, Phialophora verrucosa, Rhinocladiella aquaspersa and Cladophialophora carrionii.
- Less common: Wangiella dermatitidis, Exophiala jeanselmei, C. yegressii, F. monophora and other organisms.
- Different palm tree species (fronds) may be the major source of fungal contamination.