Scott M. Smith, M.D., Christopher F. Carpenter, M.D.


  • Usually, inflammatory and noninfectious
  • If infectious, frequently polymicrobial. Leading pathogens:
  • The pathogenic role of enterococci and anaerobes is not well defined, and empirical coverage is not usually required.
  • Organisms cultured from bile/gallbladder: unclear pathogenicity unless also recovered in blood

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Last updated: November 9, 2022