• Free-living amoebae are ubiquitous in the environment and can be isolated worldwide from soil, air, and fresh- and saltwater.
    • Eukaryotic protozoan that shares homologies with mammalian cells.[12]
    • Other free-living amoebae include N. fowleri.
  • Life cycle consists of 2 stages: the infective stage, which is a mobile trophozoite that ranges from 14-40 um in diameter, and the dormant stage, which is a double-walled, wrinkled cyst.
    • The cyst is resistant to chlorine and antibiotics. Encystation occurs under stress.
      • The minimal metabolic activity of cysts contributes to persistent infections; cysts can remain viable for decades.
    • The transition from cyst to trophozoite occurs optimally in vitro at 30°C or 86°F.[8]
  • Acanthamoeba are described as “Trojan horses” because they can harbor intracellular bacteria.[14][4]
    • Treatment of intracellular bacterial endosymbionts may attenuate inflammation associated with acanthamoebae infection.[10]

There's more to see -- the rest of this topic is available only to subscribers.

Last updated: October 9, 2023