Cancer Therapy Late Effects
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The majority of children diagnosed with cancer will reach adulthood. Childhood cancer survivors require unique medical follow-up. Risks of late effects depend on the treatments received as well as the type and site of cancer. The Children’s Oncology Group’s long-term follow-up guidelines serve as the basis for many of the recommendations in this chapter.
- Long-term survival into adulthood for a child diagnosed with cancer is nearly 80%.
- Among adults treated for childhood cancer:
- Nearly 2/3 of survivors will develop one or more chronic health condition.
- Nearly 1/3 of survivors will experience severe or life-threatening complications during adulthood.
- Approximately 450,000 childhood cancer survivors live in the United States.
- These numbers will continue to grow as new cancer therapies become available and more children survive.
Late effects of cancer therapy are influenced by tumor-related, treatment-related and host factors.
Risk of organ dysfunction is related to primary cancer location and treatment used. See detailed systems-based evaluations in the following sections.