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Cancer Therapy Late Effects

Cancer Therapy Late Effects is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Pediatric Consult.

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The majority of children diagnosed with cancer will reach adulthood. Childhood cancer survivors require unique medical follow-up. Risks of late effects depend on the treatments received as well as the type and site of cancer. The Children’s Oncology Group’s long-term follow-up guidelines serve as the basis for many of the recommendations in this chapter.


  • Long-term survival into adulthood for a child diagnosed with cancer is nearly 80%.
  • Among adults treated for childhood cancer:
    • Nearly 2/3 of survivors will develop one or more chronic health condition.
    • Nearly 1/3 of survivors will experience severe or life-threatening complications during adulthood.
  • Approximately 450,000 childhood cancer survivors live in the United States.
  • These numbers will continue to grow as new cancer therapies become available and more children survive.

Risk Factors

Late effects of cancer therapy are influenced by tumor-related, treatment-related and host factors.


Risk of organ dysfunction is related to primary cancer location and treatment used. See detailed systems-based evaluations in the following sections.

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Cabana, Michael D., editor. "Cancer Therapy Late Effects." 5-Minute Pediatric Consult, 8th ed., Wolters Kluwer, 2019. Pediatrics Central, peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/618098/all/Cancer_Therapy_Late_Effects.
Cancer Therapy Late Effects. In: Cabana MD, ed. 5-Minute Pediatric Consult. 8th ed. Wolters Kluwer; 2019. https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/618098/all/Cancer_Therapy_Late_Effects. Accessed April 18, 2019.
Cancer Therapy Late Effects. (2019). In Cabana, M. D. (Ed.), 5-Minute Pediatric Consult. Available from https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/618098/all/Cancer_Therapy_Late_Effects
Cancer Therapy Late Effects [Internet]. In: Cabana MD, editors. 5-Minute Pediatric Consult. Wolters Kluwer; 2019. [cited 2019 April 18]. Available from: https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/618098/all/Cancer_Therapy_Late_Effects.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Cancer Therapy Late Effects ID - 618098 ED - Cabana,Michael D, BT - 5-Minute Pediatric Consult UR - https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/618098/all/Cancer_Therapy_Late_Effects PB - Wolters Kluwer ET - 8 DB - Pediatrics Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -