- Cirrhosis is the end stage of progressive hepatic necrosis, fibrosis, and regenerative nodule formation that may occur as a result of many different liver diseases.
- Results in distortion of liver architecture and compression of hepatic vascular and biliary structures
- Cirrhosis is clinically defined by outcomes as either compensated or decompensated:
- Compensated cirrhosis: typically asymptomatic with normal synthetic function
- Decompensated cirrhosis: defined as loss of normal synthetic function, development of jaundice, and/or the clinical complications of portal hypertension such as ascites, variceal hemorrhage, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatopulmonary syndrome, and portopulmonary hypertension
- In its decompensated form/advanced form, cirrhosis is irreversible and often requires liver transplantation for survival of the patient.
- There are varying causes of cirrhosis; accordingly, no specific epidemiologic pattern can be identified.
- Cirrhosis due to chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, alcoholic liver disease, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are the most common indications for liver transplantation in adults.
- Biliary cirrhosis due to biliary atresia is the most common indication for liver transplantation in children.
- Many distinct genetic disorders can cause cirrhosis, such as Wilson disease and hereditary hemochromatosis.
- Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) associations have been identified in several autoimmune disorders, including sclerosing cholangitis and autoimmune hepatitis.
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Cabana, Michael D., editor. "Cirrhosis." 5-Minute Pediatric Consult, 8th ed., Wolters Kluwer, 2019. Pediatrics Central, peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/617662/all/Cirrhosis.
Cirrhosis. In: Cabana MDM, ed. 5-Minute Pediatric Consult. Wolters Kluwer; 2019. https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/617662/all/Cirrhosis. Accessed June 5, 2023.
Cirrhosis. (2019). In Cabana, M. D. (Ed.), 5-Minute Pediatric Consult (8th ed.). Wolters Kluwer. https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/617662/all/Cirrhosis
Cirrhosis [Internet]. In: Cabana MDM, editors. 5-Minute Pediatric Consult. Wolters Kluwer; 2019. [cited 2023 June 05]. Available from: https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/617662/all/Cirrhosis.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Cirrhosis ID - 617662 ED - Cabana,Michael D, BT - 5-Minute Pediatric Consult UR - https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/617662/all/Cirrhosis PB - Wolters Kluwer ET - 8 DB - Pediatrics Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -