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Hematuria is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Pediatric Consult.

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  • Hematuria is defined as ≥3 to 5 RBCs per high-power field (HPF) using a standard urinalysis technique on a centrifuged sample.
  • Persistent hematuria: hematuria on >2 separate examinations
  • Macroscopic or gross hematuria: hematuria visible to the naked eye
  • Microscopic hematuria: hematuria detected by urinalysis or microscopy only


  • Prevalence of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria in school-aged children is 3–6% on single urine sample and ≤1% on two or more urine samples.
  • Gross hematuria: 0.13% children in walk-in clinic
  • Gross hematuria is more common in boys.

Risk Factors

Nephrogenic causes of hematuria, hypercalciuria, nephrolithiasis, and nephritis can be inherited.


Hematuria can occur from anywhere along the urinary tract or kidney. Causes of hematuria can be divided into glomerular and nonglomerular causes. In glomerular hematuria, RBCs cross the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) into the urinary space. Urine with dysmorphic red cells, proteinuria, and urinary casts suggest a glomerular origin.

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Cabana, Michael D., editor. "Hematuria." 5-Minute Pediatric Consult, 8th ed., Wolters Kluwer, 2019. Pediatrics Central, peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/617640/all/Hematuria.
Hematuria. In: Cabana MD, ed. 5-Minute Pediatric Consult. 8th ed. Wolters Kluwer; 2019. https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/617640/all/Hematuria. Accessed April 21, 2019.
Hematuria. (2019). In Cabana, M. D. (Ed.), 5-Minute Pediatric Consult. Available from https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/617640/all/Hematuria
Hematuria [Internet]. In: Cabana MD, editors. 5-Minute Pediatric Consult. Wolters Kluwer; 2019. [cited 2019 April 21]. Available from: https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/617640/all/Hematuria.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Hematuria ID - 617640 ED - Cabana,Michael D, BT - 5-Minute Pediatric Consult UR - https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/617640/all/Hematuria PB - Wolters Kluwer ET - 8 DB - Pediatrics Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -