Edema

Edema is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Pediatric Consult.

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Basics

Description

Presence of abnormal amount of fluid in the interstitial spaces of the body; usually secondary to low albumin, obstruction of venous or lymphatic channels, or trauma

Pathophysiology

  • Altered capillary hemodynamics
    • Increased capillary hydrostatic pressure
    • Decreased capillary oncotic pressure
    • Increased capillary permeability
  • Lymphatic obstruction or dysfunction

Etiology

  • Increased capillary hydrostatic pressure
    • Congestive heart failure
    • Pericardial effusion
    • Kidney disease (due to retention of salt and water)
      • Acute glomerulonephritis
      • Acute kidney injury
      • Chronic kidney disease
    • Cirrhosis
    • Venous obstruction
      • Superior vena cava syndrome
      • Deep vein thrombosis
  • Decreased capillary oncotic pressure
    • Inadequate intake/production of protein
      • Protein malnutrition
      • Liver disease
    • Excessive losses of protein
      • Nephrotic syndrome
      • Protein-losing enteropathy
  • Increased capillary permeability
    • Sepsis
  • Lymphatic obstruction
    • Congenital lymphatic malformations
    • Obstruction from tumor
    • Filariasis
    • Radiation therapy
  • Medications (calcium channel blockers, vasodilators)

Commonly Associated Conditions

  • Nephrotic syndrome
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Liver disease

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