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Edema

Edema is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Pediatric Consult.

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Basics

Description

Presence of abnormal amount of fluid in the interstitial spaces of the body; usually secondary to low albumin, obstruction of venous or lymphatic channels, or trauma

Pathophysiology

  • Altered capillary hemodynamics
    • Increased capillary hydrostatic pressure
    • Decreased capillary oncotic pressure
    • Increased capillary permeability
  • Lymphatic obstruction or dysfunction

Etiology

  • Increased capillary hydrostatic pressure
    • Congestive heart failure
    • Pericardial effusion
    • Kidney disease (due to retention of salt and water)
      • Acute glomerulonephritis
      • Acute kidney injury
      • Chronic kidney disease
    • Cirrhosis
    • Venous obstruction
      • Superior vena cava syndrome
      • Deep vein thrombosis
  • Decreased capillary oncotic pressure
    • Inadequate intake/production of protein
      • Protein malnutrition
      • Liver disease
    • Excessive losses of protein
      • Nephrotic syndrome
      • Protein-losing enteropathy
  • Increased capillary permeability
    • Sepsis
  • Lymphatic obstruction
    • Congenital lymphatic malformations
    • Obstruction from tumor
    • Filariasis
    • Radiation therapy
  • Medications (calcium channel blockers, vasodilators)

Commonly Associated Conditions

  • Nephrotic syndrome
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Liver disease

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Citation

Cabana, Michael D., editor. "Edema." 5-Minute Pediatric Consult, 8th ed., Wolters Kluwer, 2019. Pediatrics Central, peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/617623/all/Edema.
Edema. In: Cabana MD, ed. 5-Minute Pediatric Consult. 8th ed. Wolters Kluwer; 2019. https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/617623/all/Edema. Accessed April 19, 2019.
Edema. (2019). In Cabana, M. D. (Ed.), 5-Minute Pediatric Consult. Available from https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/617623/all/Edema
Edema [Internet]. In: Cabana MD, editors. 5-Minute Pediatric Consult. Wolters Kluwer; 2019. [cited 2019 April 19]. Available from: https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/617623/all/Edema.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Edema ID - 617623 ED - Cabana,Michael D, BT - 5-Minute Pediatric Consult UR - https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/617623/all/Edema PB - Wolters Kluwer ET - 8 DB - Pediatrics Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -