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- Pallor is defined as paleness of the skin and may be a reflection of anemia or poor peripheral perfusion.
- The normal range for hemoglobin is age-dependent.
- Anemia can be defined functionally as the inability of hemoglobin to meet cellular oxygen demand.
- Parents often fail to notice pallor of gradual onset.
- Grandparents or others who see the child less often may be the first to suspect pallor.
- Ages between 6 months and 3 years or adolescent females
- Peak age ranges for iron deficiency
- Some red cell–enzyme X-linked defects such as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and phosphoglycerate kinase deficiencies are sex linked.
- African: hemoglobins S and C, α- and β-thalassemia trait, G6PD deficiency
- Southeast Asian: hemoglobin E and α-thalassemia
- Mediterranean descent: β-thalassemia and G6PD deficiency
Familial history: Some of the congenital hemolytic anemias are autosomal dominant.