Bruising is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Pediatric Consult.

To view the entire topic, please or purchase a subscription.

Pediatrics Central™ is an all-in-one application that puts valuable medical information, via your mobile device or the web, in the hands of clinicians treating infants, children, and adolescents. Explore these free sample topics:

Pediatrics Central

-- The first section of this topic is shown below --

Basics

Description

Bruises are the result of extravasation of blood into the skin. Conventional usage often groups petechiae and bruises (or ecchymoses) together as purpura and defines them as follows:

  • Petechiae: flat, red, or reddish purple; 1 to 3 mm; nonblanching
  • Ecchymoses: larger than petechiae, local extravasation, nonpulsatile, sometimes palpable, color depends on age of lesion

Epidemiology

Prevalence

  • <1% nonmobile babies
  • 17% cruising and crawling infants
  • 53% walkers
  • Majority of school age children

Risk Factors

Underlying bleeding disorders (e.g., von Willebrand disease, platelet disfunction, thrombocytopenia), child abuse/trauma, medications, infections, etc. may all be risk factors leading to bruising in childhood.

Genetics

  • Hemophilia is an X-linked disorder affecting males.
  • von Willebrand disease may be autosomal dominant.
  • Other platelet disorders have a variety of inheritance patterns.

Pathophysiology

Extravasation of blood from blood vessels leading to a collection of blood below the surface of the skin

Etiology

  • Disorders of blood vessels and surrounding tissue
  • Platelet abnormalities (function, number)
  • Coagulation disorders

-- To view the remaining sections of this topic, please or purchase a subscription --

Citation

* When formatting your citation, note that all book, journal, and database titles should be italicized* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Bruising ID - 617320 ED - Cabana,Michael D, BT - 5-Minute Pediatric Consult UR - https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/617320/all/Bruising PB - Wolters Kluwer ET - 8 DB - Pediatrics Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -