Bruises are the result of extravasation of blood into the skin. Conventional usage often groups petechiae and bruises (or ecchymoses) together as purpura and defines them as follows:
- Petechiae: flat, red, or reddish purple; 1 to 3 mm; nonblanching
- Ecchymoses: larger than petechiae, local extravasation, nonpulsatile, sometimes palpable, color depends on age of lesion
- <1% nonmobile babies
- 17% cruising and crawling infants
- 53% walkers
- Majority of school age children
Underlying bleeding disorders (e.g., von Willebrand disease, platelet disfunction, thrombocytopenia), child abuse/trauma, medications, infections, etc. may all be risk factors leading to bruising in childhood.
- Hemophilia is an X-linked disorder affecting males.
- von Willebrand disease may be autosomal dominant.
- Other platelet disorders have a variety of inheritance patterns.
Extravasation of blood from blood vessels leading to a collection of blood below the surface of the skin
- Disorders of blood vessels and surrounding tissue
- Platelet abnormalities (function, number)
- Coagulation disorders
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Cabana, Michael D., editor. "Bruising." 5-Minute Pediatric Consult, 8th ed., Wolters Kluwer, 2019. Pediatrics Central, peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/617320/all/Bruising.
Bruising. In: Cabana MDM, ed. 5-Minute Pediatric Consult. Wolters Kluwer; 2019. https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/617320/all/Bruising. Accessed June 6, 2023.
Bruising. (2019). In Cabana, M. D. (Ed.), 5-Minute Pediatric Consult (8th ed.). Wolters Kluwer. https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/617320/all/Bruising
Bruising [Internet]. In: Cabana MDM, editors. 5-Minute Pediatric Consult. Wolters Kluwer; 2019. [cited 2023 June 06]. Available from: https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/617320/all/Bruising.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Bruising ID - 617320 ED - Cabana,Michael D, BT - 5-Minute Pediatric Consult UR - https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/617320/all/Bruising PB - Wolters Kluwer ET - 8 DB - Pediatrics Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -