Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Asplenia/Hyposplenia

Asplenia/Hyposplenia is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Pediatric Consult.

To view the entire topic, please or purchase a subscription.

Pediatrics Central™ is an all-in-one application that puts valuable medical information, via your mobile device or the web, in the hands of clinicians treating infants, children, and adolescents. Explore these free sample topics:

Pediatrics Central

-- The first section of this topic is shown below --

Basics

Description

  • Asplenia is the absence of the spleen due to either a congenital anomaly or a surgical procedure.
  • Hyposplenia is the reduced or absent function of the spleen, impairing the capacity to prevent bacterial infections.

Epidemiology

  • The exact incidence is not known.
  • Asplenia is present in about 3% of neonates with structural heart disease.
  • Isolated asplenia is most often recognized at autopsy.

Pathophysiology

  • The spleen is a major component of the reticuloendothelial system; it is important both for antibody synthesis and for clearance of opsonized organisms by phagocytosis.
  • Antibody-mediated phagocytosis is the primary mechanism to destroy encapsulated microbes, such as pneumococcus, meningococcus, and Haemophilus.
  • In the absence of the spleen’s phagocytic pathway, the polysaccharide-rich capsules of these bacteria protect them from destruction and permit them to effect systemic bacterial infection that may lead to overwhelming sepsis.
  • For patients <4 years of age in whom few alternate routes of bacterial clearance exist, significant pathology can result from impaired splenic function.

Etiology

  • Surgical splenectomy
  • Congenital asplenia
  • In association with certain diseases or conditions (see “Differential Diagnosis”)

Commonly Associated Conditions

  • Besides splenectomy, when asplenia is known, patients with certain diseases are at risk of asplenia or hyposplenia (see “Differential Diagnosis”).
  • Asplenia or hyposplenia should be suspected in any patient with overwhelming infection with an encapsulated organism.

-- To view the remaining sections of this topic, please or purchase a subscription --

Citation

Cabana, Michael D., editor. "Asplenia/Hyposplenia." 5-Minute Pediatric Consult, 8th ed., Wolters Kluwer, 2019. Pediatrics Central, peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/617302/all/Asplenia_Hyposplenia.
Asplenia/Hyposplenia. In: Cabana MD, ed. 5-Minute Pediatric Consult. 8th ed. Wolters Kluwer; 2019. https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/617302/all/Asplenia_Hyposplenia. Accessed April 18, 2019.
Asplenia/Hyposplenia. (2019). In Cabana, M. D. (Ed.), 5-Minute Pediatric Consult. Available from https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/617302/all/Asplenia_Hyposplenia
Asplenia/Hyposplenia [Internet]. In: Cabana MD, editors. 5-Minute Pediatric Consult. Wolters Kluwer; 2019. [cited 2019 April 18]. Available from: https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/617302/all/Asplenia_Hyposplenia.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Asplenia/Hyposplenia ID - 617302 ED - Cabana,Michael D, BT - 5-Minute Pediatric Consult UR - https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/617302/all/Asplenia_Hyposplenia PB - Wolters Kluwer ET - 8 DB - Pediatrics Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -