Paragonimus spp.


  • Paragonimus spp. are Trematoda: Paragonimidae, a parasite known as the lung fluke.
  • Over 50 species are known worldwide.
  • The most common species, P. westermani, in Asia
    • Other species: a partial listing
      • P. africanus (Africa)
      • P. kellicotti (U.S., mostly Midwest)
      • P. mexicanus (Central and South America)
Major Paragonimus species causing human infection in Asia (4 major complexes)[1]

Paragonimus Species


Human Infection Described

P. westermani

Japan, Korea, Taiwan, China, Vietnam, Thailand, Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, Indonesia, Nepal, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, India

Japan, Korea, Taiwan, China, Thailand, Philippines, India

P. heterotremus

India, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar, South of China

India, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, South of China

P. skrjabini/P.s. miyazakii

Japan, China, Thailand, Vietnam, India

Japan, China

  • The lifecycle includes freshwater snails that are infected by miracidia as intermediate hosts that develop, leave the snail and then enter a crab or crayfish, which then is infective for humans. Metacercariae embed into the duodenum and migrate through the abdomen to the lung where they then become adults [Fig 1].

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Last updated: June 9, 2024