• Human infection arises from the third larval stage of an immature nematode.
  • Roundworm of vertebrate animals.
    • Gnathostoma with 13 known species, 6 of which are known to cause human infection.
      • Gnathostoma spinigerum or Gnathostoma hispidum is the usual species infecting humans.
      • Others cause human disease: G. nipponicum, G. malaysiae, G. binucleatum and G. doloresi.
    • The lifecycle includes intermediate/paratenic hosts (freshwater fish, eels, frogs, snakes and birds) and definitive hosts (domesticated pigs, cats, dogs and wild animals); see lifecycle.
      • Food-borne parasites, humans are accidental hosts.

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Last updated: February 7, 2023