• Rhinovirus (RV) is a single-strand, non-enveloped positive-sense RNA virus; as an enterovirus, it is a member of the Picornaviridae family of viruses.
    • There are three species and 169 serologic virus subtypes.
      • Human rhinovirus is responsible for up to 80% of common colds.
      • Species include RV-A (adults > children), RV-B (least common) and RV-C (new species, often more severe or disseminated in children)
  • Rhinoviruses gain entry via the upper respiratory tract, binding to ICAM-1 (intracellular adhesion molecule -1) receptors on epithelial cells lining the respiratory tract. Chemokines and cytokines cause inflammation due to viral infection, causing local symptoms.
    • The involvement of cell receptors is believed to account for part of the host effect and pathogenesis.

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Last updated: March 18, 2023