Hemorrhagic fever viruses


All are RNA viruses, members of five families:

  • Arenaviridae: usually rodent-borne, divided into two groups.
    • New World or Tacribe complex, examples
      • Junin virus, cause of Argentine hemorrhagic fever
      • Machupo virus, described in Bolivia
      • Guanarito virus, Venezuela
      • Sabia virus, Brazil:
      • Chapare virus, Bolivia
    • Old World
      • Lassa fever virus
        • West Africa (most cases in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea and Nigeria)
      • Lujo virus South Africa
  • Bunyaviridae: typically arthropod-borne
    • Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF): Eastern Europe, Middle East, Africa, Asia
    • Hantavirus
      • Old World: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome
        • Multiple strains: Seoul, Puumula, and others
      • New World: hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
        • Multiple viruses, Sin Nombre and others
    • Rift Valley fever virus: Africa, Saudi Arabia
  • Filoviridae: cause of disease in humans and non-human primates, zoonotic transmission likely, reservoir debated, though person-person spread responsible for most cases after index patient.
    • Ebola virus: six species identified (four cause disease in humans Ebola, Sudan, Taï Forest, Bundibugyo), Africa
    • Marburg virus: Africa
  • Flaviviridae: arthropod-borne, primarily ticks and mosquitoes
    • Dengue fever virus is mosquito-borne worldwide in tropical, subtropical climates.
    • Yellow fever virus: mosquito-borne, Africa, tropical Americas
    • Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus: tick-borne, Egypt, Saudi Arabia
    • Kyasanur Forest fever virus: tick-borne, India, Karnataka state
    • Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus: tick-borne with rodent reservoir, Central Asia, western Siberia
  • Phleboviridae
    • Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS): tick-borne, China

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Last updated: January 13, 2023