• Mosquitoes, midges or blackflies transmit nematode parasites.
  • Most disease is caused by species of tissue-dwelling nematodes, agents of lymphatic filariasis:
    • Wuchereria bancrofti (Asia, Africa, Latin America, Pacific islands)
      • Life cycle [Fig 1], a disease acquired from mosquitoes transmitting third-stage larvae during a blood meal.
    • Onchocerca volvulus (Africa >> Latin America, Middle East)
    • Brugia malayi (South-east Asia)
    • Brugia timori (Indonesia)
    • Mansonella perstans (West, East and Central Africa, and tropical regions of South and Central America)
      • Also, M. ozzardi, and M. streptocerca (= Dipetalonema streptocerca),M. rodhaini (rare)
  • Transmitted by night- or day-biting mosquitoes (Anopheles, Culex).
  • Other less common species involved include Mansonella perstans, M. streptocerca, and M. ozzardi.
  • See Loa loa or Onchocerca volvulus modules for information on these filarial parasites.

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Last updated: July 13, 2024