Diphyllobothriasis (Dibothriocephalus latum)
- The cestode (tapeworm) parasite, is found worldwide but concentrated in some endemic regions.
- Recent genus name change from Diphyllobothrium to Dibothriocephalus.
- The most important fish-borne zoonosis with a complex 3-host life cycle:
- Eggs ingested by crustaceans and form the first larval stage → crustacean ingested by a freshwater fish where plerocercoid (second larval stage) develops → humans contract infection by eating raw or undercooked freshwater fish, and the parasite matures rapidly in the intestine [Figure 1].
- Significant species are D. latum (U.S. Great Lakes region and Alaska, Scandinavia, Russia), D. nihonkaiense (Japan), D. pacificum (Pacific coast of South America), and D. dendriticum (Europe).
- Cases also reported after eating imported fish.
- At least 10 other species are occasionally reported in humans.
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