• Bacillus anthracis (Category A bioterrorism agent)
  • Spore is a primary infectious form.
    • Gram-positive, large rod-shaped organism [Fig 1]
  • Virulence factors:
    • Antiphagocytic capsule
    • Exotoxins: why anti-toxin therapies have been developed given the prominence of these toxins in causing illness.
      • Edema toxin (ET)
      • Lethal toxin (LT)
      • Protective antigen (PA) combines ET and LT, facilitating entry into cells and assisting in downregulating immune responses.
  • B. anthracis antimicrobial resistance
    • Many antibiotics appear useful with low MICs.
      • High-level resistance may be seen for beta-lactams (both penicillins and cephalosporins), TMP-SMX and tetracycline class agents
    • Tetracycline-resistance:

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Last updated: February 10, 2024