• Formative, nonevaluative, objective appraisal of performance aimed at modifying and improving clinical skills, correcting deficits, and improving future performance
  • Targeted to specific (observed) behaviors the trainee already does well and those in need of improvement
  • Immediate and formative, not summative
  • Formative feedback sometimes called “low stakes”
  • Presents information, not judgment
  • Can be positive (reinforcing) or negative (constructive or corrective) or both
  • Feedback involves a specific event or occurrence versus compliment/criticism, which are more vague and general.
  • Like evaluation, should ideally be based on objective observations


  • Summative judgment
  • Equivalent to grading and/or assigning a final grade for the rotation
  • Intent is to tell learners how they performed.
  • Like feedback, should ideally be based on objective observations

Compliment and Criticism

  • COMPLIMENT: a polite expression of praise or admiration
  • CRITICISM: an expression of disapproval based on perceived faults or mistakes
  • These are typically general, judgmental, and are not goal based or not based on specific observations.

There's more to see -- the rest of this topic is available only to subscribers.