is a topic covered in the Johns Hopkins ABX Guide
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- Helminths (Phylum Platyhelminthes, Class Trematoda) that cause schistosomiasis AKA blood flukes or bilharzia.
- Highly prevalent throughout tropical and lower resource countries.
- Freshwater infection, water mollusks intermediate hosts → infective cercariae enter the skin.
- Life cycle (Schistosoma): photos of egg forms of S. mansoni, S. haematobium and S. japonicum.
- Three major species, geographically distinct:
- S. mansoni (Africa, Middle East, Caribbean, South America)
- S. haematobium (Africa, Middle East)
- S. japonicum (China, Southeast Asia, Philippines)
- Minor species:
- S. intercalatum (West and Central Africa, usually a cause of lower GI tract disease)
- S. mekongi (Laos, Cambodia)
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